海南人文地理 | 临高人只唱“哩哩美”?点击收听绝美渔歌“哩哩美”

By 赵婉玉 / 南海网 / Updated: 2019-11-01,17:30

  编者语:

  南海网国际传播中心肩负新闻传播、文化传播和教育传播的使命。南海网陆续推出有关海南人文地理的中英文双语文本。敬请关注。

  The International Media Center of hinews.cn undertakes the mission of news, culture and education communication. Hinews.cn will launch bilingual articles on Hainan's human geography in both Chinese and English. Stay tuned for further update.

  Translated by Zhao Wanyu Source:hinews.cn

  边收听绝美渔歌“哩哩美”边欣赏海南人文地理

  Click here to listen to Li Li Mei

“哩哩美”

  临高人的娱乐同样与其地理、人文相关。临高县城临江近海,土地平坦而肥沃。临高人可靠海吃海,农产品也格外丰富,所以临高人连早餐都荤味重,清蒸乳猪也可以是早餐的主菜,临高人的娱乐也丰富多彩。

  Lingao people's entertainment is also related to its geography and human culture. Lingao county is near to the river and sea, and thus its land is flat and fertile. Living with the sea, Lingao people can enjoy seafood and the agriculture products are extraordinarily plentiful. Therefore, Lingao people even have a heavy meat flavor for breakfast so that steamed suckling pigs can also be the main course for breakfast. And the entertainment of Lingao people is rich and colorful as well.

  临高人对临剧格外偏爱

  Lingao people have a special preference for Lin Opera

  临高人说的临高话自成体系,相对于海南方言来讲,海南岛上讲临高话的群体是少数,但临高对中原传统文化的传承却根基深厚,文脉清晰。临高历史文化名人王佐一直是临高人的骄傲,临高县城孔庙的建筑规模及历史的悠久在海岛上少见,散布在临高各乡镇的学堂多与孔庙的衔接相关,临高人崇尚文化的痕迹明显,临高人的娱乐颇有文化底蕴。临高人的娱乐是全方位的,人们除了热衷于广场舞、卡拉ok外,靠海的乡镇,如新盈镇和调楼镇等,当地人同时享受琼剧、临剧、哩哩美和人偶戏等娱乐。为什么临高海边的人喜欢琼剧?临高作协主席林青海说,一是他们的经济状况较好,出得起钱请琼剧团;再就是他们见识广,文化视野也宽广些。

  Lingao dialect has its own system. Compared with Hainan dialect, there are a small number of people who speak Lingao dialect on Hainan Island. However, Lingao's inheritance of traditional culture in the Central Plains of China has a deep foundation and clear context. Lingao historical and cultural celebrity, Wang Zuo, has always been the pride of Lingao people. The construction scale and long history of Confucius temple in Lingao County are rare on Hainan Island. And the schools scattered in various villages and towns of Lingao are mostly related to the connection of Confucius temple. Lingao people have remained obvious traces of advocating culture. Thus, their entertainment is quite rich in culture and all-round. Apart from square dancing and Karaoke, people in the villages and towns near the sea, such as Xinying Town and Diaolou Town, also enjoy Hainan Opera, Lin Opera, Li Li Mei and Puppet Show. Why do Lingao people who live on the seaside appreciate Hainan Opera? Lin Qinghai, chairman of Lingao Writers' Association, said that one reason is that they are in good economic situation and can afford to hire Qiong Troupe; another reason is that they have a wide range of knowledge and cultural vision.

  临高县城里有至少十三个剧团,各剧团人数不等,剧团各有特色,都遵照市场规律形成良好的竞争局面。这些剧团主打的是临剧,临剧往往创造性地将音韵优美的哩哩美融合其中,还糅合了临高地方文艺形式的多个特点,譬如在调式板腔上,融入了山歌小放牛的欢快,还有木偶剧“啊罗哈”的豪放等等。由于其创新性,临剧较木偶剧更得年轻人的喜欢。临高剧团的人才通常多才多艺,既能演临剧,也能演人偶剧,邀请方或观众想看什么他们就演什么。剧团按照市场需求渐渐成“双栖”剧团甚至是“多栖”剧团。

  There are at least 13 troupes in Lingao County. The number of actors in these troupes varies, and each troupe has its own characteristics, but all of them have formed a harmonious competitive situation in accordance with market rules. These troupes focus on Lin Opera, which creatively integrates the beauty of rhythm with “Li Li Mei” and also combines many characteristics of the local art forms in Lingao. For example, in terms of tune, Lin Opera absorbs the joy of folk song “Small Cattle-Herding” and the boldness and unconstraint of Puppet Show "ah luo ha". Because of their innovation, Lin Opera is more popular with young people than Puppet Show. Besides, Lingao troupes’ talents are usually versatile. They can perform not only Lin Opera but also Puppet Show. According to the market demand, some troupes have gradually become "amphibious" troupes or even "multiple operas" troupes.

  临剧用临高方言演唱,流行于临高、澄迈、海口等临高方言区。临高“端木塑于肩膀,男女巫唱答为戏”之习俗发展成人偶戏后,很受临高方言地区群众的喜爱。到了二十世纪二十年代后期,在临高县的新盈、南宝等地,有人将临高方言套入琼剧板腔以及粤剧“梆簧声腔”进行演唱,试图在舞台上创出有别于人偶戏的剧种,演员干脆放下木偶,单纯由演员演唱,这样的的戏剧后来被称为临剧。仔细听,感觉临剧和琼剧程式上相似,最大不同点是,男主角唱的唱词格外铿锵有力,唱词到了女角的嘴里,却又柔情似水,悲切时肝肠寸断。临剧在县城成了受临高老少欢迎的剧种。

  Lin Opera usually sings in Lingao dialect and is popular in Lingao dialect regions, such as Lingao, Chengmai and Haikou. After Lingao's custom of "putting wood on the shoulder, witches and wizards sing and echo" developed into Puppet Show, this kind of opera has been very popular with people in Lingao dialect area. In the late 1920s, in Xinying, Nanbao and other places in Lingao County, some people introduced Lingao dialect into Hainan Opera's tunes and Cantonese Opera “Banghuang Tune”, trying to create a different type of opera . Some actors even put down their puppets and only sang on the stage. Such kind of opera was later called Lin Opera. When listening carefully, audience can feel that Lin Opera and Qiong-opera are similar to some degree. But the biggest difference is that the lyrics sung by the male protagonist are especially forceful, while the lyrics of the female horn become more gentle, tender and deeply grieved. Now, Lin Opera has become a popular opera in the county.

  人偶戏曾经辉煌

  The puppet show was once splendid

  至于人偶戏,林青海说,看人偶戏人的大多是上了年纪的人。临高人偶戏(民间小戏)用临高方言(属泰语系)演唱,流布于海南省临高县和澄迈、儋州部分地区以及琼山的博片、遵谭、十字路,海口市郊区的长流、荣山、秀英等临语地区。人偶剧本来有其优势,演出成本低些。请一个琼剧团,一晚的演出上万,甚至两万左右,请人偶剧团几千元就可以了。

  As for Puppet Show, Lin Qinghai said that most people watching puppet show are elderly people. Lingao Puppet Show (folk opera) is sung in Lingao dialect (Thai language). It is distributed in the areas of Lingao, Chengmai and Danzhou in Hainan Province, and in Bopian, Zuntan and Shizi Road in Qiongshan, as well as in Changliu, Rongshan and Xiuying in the suburbs of Haikou. The Puppet Show has its advantages of the lower performance cost. Inviting a Hainan Opera troupe to perform costs tens of thousands or even about 20,000yuan a night, while a puppet troupe only costs several thousand yuan.

  尽管木偶有了戏就活了起来,但人偶戏毕竟是演员扛着或举着木偶演唱的戏,眼睛和嘴巴都不会动,怎么着也比不上真人表演的临剧。何况人偶戏的剧本内容常常是书生落难、小姐多情,最后书生高中状元、有情人未必成眷属之类的套路,就不大受年轻人待见。不管怎么说,几十年来,人偶戏曾经是临高人娱乐活动的主角。

  Although puppets become alive when they are played, the puppet show, after all, is a performance in which actors carry or hold puppets but their eyes and mouth cannot move, so that it is not comparable to a live-action show. What's more, the script of the puppet show is often a routine of a scholar in misfortune and a miss with amorous feelings, and finally the scholar gets high school champion but the couple break up , which is not popular with young people. Anyway, for decades, puppet show has been the main character in the entertainment activities of Lingao people.

  上个世纪七十年代,临高县曾经请北京的专家来试图改进人偶戏的所谓短处,比如人扛木偶久了肩膀会累,就让木偶的某部分改用纸模,这么一改还真有效果,眼睛和嘴巴都会动了,人扛或举着木偶也不再那么疲惫,这种改进后的人偶戏风行了一段时间,后来兴许是不想改掉人偶戏的原生态品质,就没再用纸模,现在的人偶戏恢复了原先的样子。

  In the 1970s, Lingao County once invited experts from Beijing to try to improve the so-called shortcomings of puppet show. For example, if actors carry puppets for a long time, their shoulders will be tired. Thus, some parts of the puppets were replaced by paper models. Such changes were once effective. The eyes and mouth of puppets could move, and actors would no longer be so tired when carrying or holding puppets. The improved puppet show became popular for a period of time. But later on, perhaps they did not want to change the original quality of puppet show, so they gave up the paper models. Now the puppet show is back to its original appearance.

  人偶戏有过辉煌的时段。上个世纪八十年代,临高县抽调一批文化人参与人偶戏的改进,派人出岛参观学习,鼓励和支持当地文化人大胆移植与改编临剧、琼剧等剧目,由此改变了人偶戏舞台上“白肚戏”总是主打的局面,改写了人偶戏长期以来在编、导上缺失文化人的历史。反映现代生活的《海花》、《闹钟爷爷》及新编历史剧《莲花仙女》等剧目,其思想性和艺术性都达到较高水平,参加全国木偶皮影观摩汇演并获得奖项。

  The puppet show once had a glorious time in the past. In the 1980s, Lingao County organized a group of intellectuals to participate in the improvement of puppet show, sent people to study outside the island, and encouraged and supported local intellectuals to boldly transplant and adapt operas, such as Lin Opera and Hainan Opera, which changed the situation that "Baidu Play" was always the main theme on the puppet show stage and rewrote the long history of lacking intellectuals in the compilation and direction of puppet show. Some plays which reflect the modern life, such as "Sea Flower", "Grandpa Alarm Clock" and the new historical play "Lotus Fairy", have reached a high level on the ideological content and artistic quality. Besides, these plays participated in the national puppet shadow and puppet show performance and won some awards.

  “哩哩美”成了新宠

  "Li Li Mei" has become a new favor

  临高人的娱乐显然在与时俱进,哩哩美在临高人的娱乐内容中的比重在增加就是例证。临高渔歌是流传于临高县渔民中的一种汉族民歌种类。因其多用衬词哩哩美和相关传说,也称哩哩美、哩哩妹。在中国汉族民歌中非常突出,具有鲜明的地方文化色彩和渗透着浓郁的新盈港一带的乡土气息,辽阔的北部湾拥着临高的海港,船上粗犷的渔民汉子,船下贤惠的渔家女子,岸上优美的渔家歌声,海边渔村风情很吸引人。

  Lingao people's entertainment is obviously keeping pace with the times, as evidenced by the increasing proportion of Li Li Mei in their entertainment content. Lingao Fishery Song is a kind of Han folk song popular among fishermen in Lingao County. It is also called Li Li Mei, because of the use of the words “Li Li Mei” and related legends. This kind of folk songs has distinct local cultural color and rich rural flavor of Xinying Port area, where the vast Beibu Bay is surrounded by the harbor of Lingao and the fishing villages are very attractive: the rough fishermen on board, the virtuous women at home, the beautiful fishery songs on the shore.

  对比而言,客家山歌有些悲情,歌词里多见岁月的沧桑;儋州调声急促奔放,昂扬热烈,某些节奏像是情感发展的协奏曲;哩哩美的声调较为丰富,大海的韵味浓烈,抒情悠扬,能表达立体的情感。哩哩美越来越受到临高人的重视,并热衷于演唱和传播。

  By contrast, Hakka folk songs are a little sad, and the lyrics are usually full of vicissitudes of life. Danzhou Tune is rapid and unrestrained, high-spirited and enthusiastic and some rhythms are like the concertos for emotional development. While Li Li Mei's tune is rich and full of charm of the sea. Its lyrics is melodious and can express rich and varied emotions. Now Li Li Mei is getting more and more attention from Lingao people, who are keen on singing and spreading it.

  此前报道:

  海南人为什么爱喝老爸茶?Why do Hainanese love Daddy Tea?

Discover

×

Having questions about living or working in Hainan? Leave it below. 

We shall contact you by email once we have the answers for your questions.

Our Privacy Statement & Cookie Policy

By continuing to browser our site and use the services you agree to our use of cookies, Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. You can change your cookie settings through your browser.

I agree